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Woven carpet maybe in a tiny minority of today’s production but still produces some of the finest carpets which are used for prestigious installations.
The pile of the carpet is inserted into the backing as it is woven and cut to length creating U-shaped tufts to provide a velvety surface. The process locks in the fibre to create a carpet of high durability and performance retention as well as a luxury feel. The process allows for intricate designs and colours to be used although modern trends mean that the traditional patterned axminster has given way to current fashion trends for plain carpets.
Wilton woven carpets are produced in a similar way to axminsters – the principal difference being that a continuous fibre is woven all the way through. The carpet can be sheared to create a range of cut and loop textured effect. The result is a high quality carpet and unrivelled durability.
Manufactured in the same way as wilton carpet – a loop pile which allows the yarn to be woven across a wider area which creating a flatter, more textured effect.
With advances in manufacturing technology, 95% of all carpet produced today is tufted. It takes about an hour to make a roll of carpet that might take eight hours to weave. To make tufted carpet, hundreds of yarn threaded needles are pushed through the primary backing fabric to form loops or tufts, which may be left as is or cut. A heavy adhesive coating is applied to hold the tufts in place and a secondary backing is usually glued on for strength and stability. A wide variety of styles and textures can then be created using various techniques.
Berber carpets look like are named after a handmade, bulky wool carpet by the Berber tribes of North Africa and Asia. The loops are made from thick bulky yarns of wool, nylon, polypropylene or a blend of these fibres to provide a cushioned effect underfoot. These carpets are available in an assortment of colours and may be flecked and can be either level or multilevel loop.
When all the loops are of the same height, a highly flexible and durable carpet is created which has a natural, casual appearance even when (commonly) it is made from synthetic fibres. The tight loop texture tends to hide marks so it is a good blend between luxury and practicality.
The loops vary to two or sometimes three loop heights to create informal, random textures which are veryforgiving for marks and stains and therefore very suitable for high traffic areas and busy family rooms.
Frieze (pronounced free say) carpets are similar to saxony, but the yarns are mor lightly twisted and should always be heat set. They have a dense, low pile surface which creates a coarse, pebbly texture. Frieze carpets are very durable and hide footprints, dust and dirt which makes them suitable for heavy traffic areas.
Saxony textures and made of twisted yarns which should be heat set. The tips remain very distinct rather than blending together, to form a a very elegant finish. Saxony textures show footprints and vacuum marks so are suitable for more occasional rooms in the home. More textured variations improve the practicality of saxonies.
The popular twist carpet is the cut-pile standard. The yarn is tightly twisted and often heatset to retian this feature and the result a versatile, textured finish that is ideal for plain colours.
Velvet textures (sometimes called ‘velour’ or ‘plush;) all have a level surface pile of approx 5mm to 10mm height, which is then sheared to give a smooth finish. With very little twist in the yarn, the ends blend together which then further enhances the overall finish. These carpets tend to ‘shade’ with heavy use. Footprints show easily and the colour looks different from place to place because fibres lying in different directions relflect the light differently. A luxury for occasional rooms.
Cut and Loop
When some of the pile is cut and other left as loop, a variety of surface textures and patterns can be created (in a variety of colours). The multi-level surface is excellent for hiding footprints and stains so cut and loop is good for high traffic areas and general purpose rooms in the home.
Shag pile has varied in popularity. The pile is up to 50mm long and the texture is casual and loose but the surface flattens easily and lacks durability.
Bonded carpets (sometimes called ‘fibre bonded’ or ‘fusion bonded’) are created by firing fibres into an adhesive material – the fibres are not stretched into the backing in any way. The technique is principally used for commercial carpet tiles.
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